Hamlet Deutsch Inhaltsverzeichnis

crossroads | hamlet | hamlet | village. crossroads | hamlet hamlet | village © Princeton University. Hamlet ist eine Tragödie von William Shakespeare. Claudius, des Königs Bruder, ermordet den Herrscher, reißt die Krone an sich und heiratet Gertrude, die Witwe des Königs. Prinz Hamlet strebt danach, seinen Vater zu rächen und stürzt dabei alle. Man kann ohne Übertreibung sagen, dass der „Schlegel-Tiecksche Shakespeare​“ derjenige ist, den deutsche. Hamlet, Sohn des vorigen und Neffe des gegenwärtigen Königs. Polonius Erstmals ins Deutsche übersetzt von Christoph Martin Wieland ().

hamlet deutsch

KÖNIG CLAUDIUS von Dänemark. HAMLET, Sohn des vorigen und Neffe des gegenwärtigen Königs. POLONIUS, Oberkämmerer. HORATIO, Hamlets Freund. Hamlet ist eine Tragödie von William Shakespeare. Claudius, des Königs Bruder, ermordet den Herrscher, reißt die Krone an sich und heiratet Gertrude, die Witwe des Königs. Prinz Hamlet strebt danach, seinen Vater zu rächen und stürzt dabei alle. Übersetzung für 'hamlet' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. William Shakespeare. Hamlet. Deutsch von ROLAND SCHIMMELPFENNIG. Fassung vom GEIST, Hamlets Vater, der verstorbene König von Dänemark. Prinz Hamlet kommt von seinem Studium in Wittenberg nach Haus zurück und findet seinen Vater, den König von Dänemark ermordet vor. Sein Onkel Claudius​. KÖNIG CLAUDIUS von Dänemark. HAMLET, Sohn des vorigen und Neffe des gegenwärtigen Königs. POLONIUS, Oberkämmerer. HORATIO, Hamlets Freund. Übersetzung Englisch-Deutsch für hamlet im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. Übersetzung für 'hamlet' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache.

The Ducis play bore very little resemblance to the Shakespeare original. There were far fewer characters: no ghost, no Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, no players, no gravediggers.

There was no duel, and Hamlet did not die at the end. Modifications such as these were necessary to gain performances in the French theaters of his time.

Ducis had told the English actor-impresario David Garrick that a ghost which speaks, itinerant players, and a fencing duel were "absolutely inadmissible" on the French stage.

Nevertheless, moral propriety and politesse dictated that only such highly sanitized versions as that of Ducis could be performed on stage.

The French referred to these performing editions as imitations , and most knew that they were highly modified versions of the original.

All the same, Ducis was at first accused of polluting French theaters with Shakespeare; only much later was he indicted for mutilating the original.

Dumas could not speak or read English well. The Dumas-Meurice version was more faithful to Shakespeare and restored much of what was missing from the Ducis version, including Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, the ghost, the duel, and the gravediggers.

Still, by modern standards, it was a rather free adaptation of the original. Fortinbras was dropped, and the entire opening scene with the sentinels on the ramparts of the castle was excised.

A love scene between Hamlet and Ophelia was added to the first act. Claudius does not send Hamlet to England, so Rosencrantz and Guildenstern do not die.

Notably, at the end of the play, as Gertrude, Claudius, and Laertes are dying, the ghost of Hamlet's father reappears and condemns each of the dying characters.

Dumas explained these "improvements" to Shakespeare's play by insisting that the original violated plausibility, transgressed decency, and destroyed the dramatic balance.

This was the version with which French audiences of the day were most familiar, and the one against which the opera would be compared and judged.

When adapting a play for opera, it was imperative to shorten and simplify. Traditionally grand opera conveys plot in broad brushstrokes; the audience is not particularly interested in its intricacies, or its detours and complexities.

The libretto reduced the total number of characters to fifteen counting the four mime players required for the Play scene , and also reduced the number of subplots.

Dumas had cut the scene with the sentinels Bernardo and Francisco. Gone also were Voltimand, Cornelius, Osric, and Reynaldo.

Like Dumas, Fortinbras was omitted, thus there was no need to mention an invasion from Norway. Dumas omitted the subplot of Hamlet's voyage to England, so Rosencrantz and Guildenstern were also omitted, removing most of the black humor of the play.

Polonius' accidental murder in act 4 was excised, and his singing part reduced to only eight measures.

This constellation of roles preserved the tetradic model and the balance of male and female parts which had become established in French grand opera at the time of Meyerbeer's Robert le diable in Other plot changes, such as making Läerte less cynical and more positive towards Hamlet early on, [19] not only simplified the story but heightened the tragedy of their duel in the Gravediggers Scene.

Making Gertrude a co-conspirator alongside Claudius, enhanced the dramatic conflict between Hamlet and Gertrude when Hamlet attempts to coerce a confession from her in the Closet Scene.

Musically, of course, the Mad Scene was one of those audience-pleasing creations which drew upon well-established operatic tradition.

Another change, the addition of Hamlet's drinking song for the Players in act 2, created another opportunity for an audience-pleasing musical number.

It also led to a shortening of his instructions to them before the song [16] and could be justified dramatically as a cover for his ulterior motive in asking them to enact the mime play.

As in the Dumas' play, the ghost returns at the end, but unlike in Dumas, the ghost merely banishes Gertrude to a convent for her role in the conspiracy.

Finally, exactly as in Dumas, Hamlet lives and is proclaimed King. Very little is known concerning the details of the composition of the music.

Thomas may have received the libretto around Thomas finally consented to the scheduling of the premiere. Consistent with this press report, parts of the soprano role were altered around this time with Nilsson's capabilities in mind.

Thomas replaced a dialog with the women's chorus in the Mad Scene in act 4 with a Swedish Ballade. The tune is a traditional Swedish folk tune.

A tenor suitable for the role of Hamlet could not be found, but an outstanding dramatic baritone, Jean-Baptiste Faure , was available, so Thomas decided to transpose the part, originally written for a tenor, to baritone.

In the event, Faure "achieved a tremendous personal triumph as Hamlet. The changes to Shakespeare's version of the story led to criticism of the opera in London.

For instance, in a critic with The Pall Mall Gazette wrote:. No one but a barbarian or a Frenchman would have dared to make such a lamentable burlesque of so tragic a theme as Hamlet.

Hamlet Vienna, , an operetta by Julius Hopp , who adapted many of Offenbach 's works for the Austrian capital, is a comic parody of Thomas's artistic methods in the opera.

The latter production first shown in Geneva was presented at the Metropolitan Opera in The royal Danish court is celebrating the coronation of Queen Gertrude who has married Claudius, brother of the late King Hamlet.

Claudius places the crown on Gertrude's head. All leave, and Prince Hamlet, son of the late King and Gertrude, enters.

He is upset that his mother has remarried so soon. He is being sent to Norway and gives his farewells. Courtiers and soldiers, on their way to the banquet, enter the hall.

Horatio and Marcellus tell the soldiers that they have seen the ghost of Hamlet's father on the ramparts of the castle the previous night and go off to tell Hamlet.

Horatio and Marcellus meet Hamlet on the ramparts. The Ghost appears, Horatio and Marcellus leave, and the Ghost tells his son that Claudius murdered him with poison.

The Ghost commands Hamlet to take vengeance on Claudius, but Gertrude must be spared. The Ghost withdraws.

Hamlet draws his sword and swears to avenge his father. Hamlet appears in the distance, but leaves without speaking.

The Queen enters. Gertrude suspects that Hamlet now knows about the murder of his father, but Claudius says he does not.

Hamlet enters and feigns madness. He rejects all overtures of friendship from Claudius, then announces he has engaged a troupe of actors to perform a play that evening.

Claudius and Gertrude leave, and the players enter. Hamlet asks them to mime the play The Murder of Gonzago and then sings a drinking song, playing the fool, so as not to arouse suspicion.

The King and Queen and the other guests assemble in the castle hall where the stage has been set up. The play begins, and Hamlet narrates. The play tells a story similar to the murder of Hamlet's father.

After the "poison" is administered, the "assassin" places the "crown" on his head. Claudius turns pale, rises abruptly, and commands the play to stop and the actors to leave.

Hamlet accuses Claudius of the murder of his father, and snatches Claudius' crown from his head. The entire assembly reacts in a grand septet with chorus.

In the Queen's chambers Hamlet delivers the monologue "To be or not to be", then hides behind a tapestry.

Claudius enters and prays aloud of his remorse. Hamlet, deciding Claudius' soul may be saved, if he is killed while praying, delays yet again.

Polonius enters and in his conversation with Claudius reveals his own complicity. Hamlet tries to force Gertrude to confront her guilt, but she resists.

As Hamlet threatens her, he sees the Ghost, who reminds him he must spare his mother. Hamlet comes upon two gravediggers digging a new grave.

He asks who has died, but they do not know. Hamlet finally realizes she is dead. The Ghost appears again and exhorts Hamlet to kill Claudius, which Hamlet does, avenging his father's death.

The Ghost affirms Claudius' guilt and Hamlet's innocence. Hamlet, still in despair, is proclaimed King to cries of "Long live Hamlet!

Long live the King! The opera begins with a brief prelude approximately three and a half minutes in length. The music commences with soft timpani rolls, proceeds to string tremolandi, horn calls, and anguished string motifs, and "evokes the hero's tormented mind as well as the cold ramparts of Elsinore.

Introduction, march and chorus. The court celebrates the Coronation of Gertrude, widow of King Hamlet; and her marriage to his brother, Claudius Courtiers: Que nos chants montent jusqu'aux cieux — "Let our songs rise to the skies".

The new king, Claudius, stands before his throne on a dais, surrounded by the nobles of the court. His court chancellor, Polonius, is nearby.

Gertrude comments in an aside to Claudius that she does not see her son Hamlet. Claudius admonishes her to bear herself as a queen.

The courtiers sing of their joy as they celebrate the King and Queen's glorious marriage Courtiers: Le deuil fait place aux chants joyeux — "Mourning gives way to joyful songs".

The King and Queen leave the hall followed by the courtiers. Recitative and duet. Prince Hamlet, son of the late King and Gertrude, enters the empty hall.

As Hamlet enters, before he begins singing, the low strings in the orchestra play Hamlet's Theme : [1]. He laments that his mother has remarried scarcely two months since his father's death Hamlet: Vains regrets!

Ephemeral tenderness! Hamlet protests he cannot make promises of love one day, only to forget them the next. His heart is not that of a woman.

The text of the duet is based on Shakespeare's "Doubt thou the stars are fire", which is part of a letter from Hamlet to Ophelia which Polonius reads to Gertrude and Claudius.

The three themes which have been introduced in this number are the most important elements which Thomas uses for creating compositional and dramatic unity in the opera.

They reoccur, usually in modified form, whenever significant situations relevant to the ideas they represent present themselves, although without having, in the Wagnerian sense, a leitmotivic function.

In the play Laertes warns Ophelia to be wary of Hamlet's intentions. Fanfares are heard as servants and pages pass at the back.

More fanfares are heard as lords and ladies enter on their way to the banquet Lords and Ladies: Honneur, honneur au Roi! They are followed by a group of young officers.

Chorus of Officers and Pages. The officers sing of their hope that the call of pleasure will dispel their current ennui Officers: Nargue de la tristesse!

Horatio and Marcellus enter in haste, looking for Hamlet. They tell of having seen the ghost of the late King upon the ramparts the previous night.

The skeptical officers respond: "An absurd illusion! Lies and sorcery! The officers, with the lords and ladies, finish the chorus and depart for the banquet.

Again, this scene is unlike the play in which Horatio, who has not seen the ghost himself but has merely heard of it from the sentinels, reports the news of the ghost's appearance to Hamlet directly, and not to a group of soldiers.

For some reason Matthew Gurewitsch finds this change somewhat odd: "Horatio and a sidekick blab the dread news of the Ghost's appearance to a squadron of frolicking young officers, who are totally unimpressed.

The ramparts. At the back, the illuminated castle. Scene at the ramparts. Horatio and Marcellus enter Horatio: Viendra-t-il?

Horatio and Marcellus tell Hamlet that they have seen his father's ghost on the previous night at the stroke of twelve. Fanfares are heard emanating from the banquet hall within the castle, and soon thereafter the bells begin to toll midnight.

The ghost appears, and they express their fear. Hamlet addresses the Ghost Hamlet: Spectre infernal! Venerated image!

The ghost gives a sign indicating that Horatio and Marcellus should withdraw, and Hamlet orders them to do so. He identifies himself and commands Hamlet to avenge him.

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The Taming of the Shrew by William Shakespeare. In , Francis Meres published his Palladis Tamia , a survey of English literature from Chaucer to its present day, within which twelve of Shakespeare's plays are named.

Hamlet is not among them, suggesting that it had not yet been written. As Hamlet was very popular, Bernard Lott, the series editor of New Swan , believes it "unlikely that he [Meres] would have overlooked The phrase "little eyases" [42] in the First Folio F1 may allude to the Children of the Chapel , whose popularity in London forced the Globe company into provincial touring.

A contemporary of Shakespeare's, Gabriel Harvey , wrote a marginal note in his copy of the edition of Chaucer's works, which some scholars use as dating evidence.

Harvey's note says that "the wiser sort" enjoy Hamlet , and implies that the Earl of Essex —executed in February for rebellion—was still alive.

Other scholars consider this inconclusive. Edwards, for example, concludes that the "sense of time is so confused in Harvey's note that it is really of little use in trying to date Hamlet ".

This is because the same note also refers to Spenser and Watson as if they were still alive "our flourishing metricians " , but also mentions " Owen's new epigrams", published in Three early editions of the text have survived, making attempts to establish a single "authentic" text problematic and inconclusive.

Other folios and quartos were subsequently published—including John Smethwick 's Q3, Q4, and Q5 —37 —but these are regarded as derivatives of the first three editions.

Early editors of Shakespeare's works , beginning with Nicholas Rowe and Lewis Theobald , combined material from the two earliest sources of Hamlet available at the time, Q2 and F1.

Each text contains material that the other lacks, with many minor differences in wording: scarcely lines are identical in the two.

Editors have combined them in an effort to create one "inclusive" text that reflects an imagined "ideal" of Shakespeare's original.

Theobald's version became standard for a long time, [52] and his "full text" approach continues to influence editorial practice to the present day.

Some contemporary scholarship, however, discounts this approach, instead considering "an authentic Hamlet an unrealisable ideal.

Colin Burrow has argued that "most of us should read a text that is made up by conflating all three versions I suspect most people just won't want to read a three-text play Traditionally, editors of Shakespeare's plays have divided them into five acts.

None of the early texts of Hamlet , however, were arranged this way, and the play's division into acts and scenes derives from a quarto.

Modern editors generally follow this traditional division but consider it unsatisfactory; for example, after Hamlet drags Polonius's body out of Gertrude's bedchamber, there is an act-break [59] after which the action appears to continue uninterrupted.

The discovery in of Q1—whose existence had been quite unsuspected—caused considerable interest and excitement, raising many questions of editorial practice and interpretation.

Scholars immediately identified apparent deficiencies in Q1, which was instrumental in the development of the concept of a Shakespearean " bad quarto ".

The major deficiency of Q1 is in the language: particularly noticeable in the opening lines of the famous " To be, or not to be " soliloquy: "To be, or not to be, aye there's the point.

New Cambridge editor Kathleen Irace has noted that "Q1's more linear plot design is certainly easier [ Q1 is considerably shorter than Q2 or F1 and may be a memorial reconstruction of the play as Shakespeare's company performed it, by an actor who played a minor role most likely Marcellus.

It is suggested by Irace that Q1 is an abridged version intended especially for travelling productions, thus the question of length may be considered as separate from issues of poor textual quality.

Irace, in her introduction to Q1, wrote that "I have avoided as many other alterations as possible, because the differences From the early 17th century, the play was famous for its ghost and vivid dramatisation of melancholy and insanity , leading to a procession of mad courtiers and ladies in Jacobean and Caroline drama.

Before then, he was either mad, or not; either a hero, or not; with no in-betweens. Hamlet departed from contemporary dramatic convention in several ways.

For example, in Shakespeare's day, plays were usually expected to follow the advice of Aristotle in his Poetics : that a drama should focus on action, not character.

In Hamlet , Shakespeare reverses this so that it is through the soliloquies , not the action, that the audience learns Hamlet's motives and thoughts.

The play is full of seeming discontinuities and irregularities of action, except in the "bad" quarto. At one point, as in the Gravedigger scene, [a] Hamlet seems resolved to kill Claudius: in the next scene, however, when Claudius appears, he is suddenly tame.

Scholars still debate whether these twists are mistakes or intentional additions to add to the play's themes of confusion and duality.

Hamlet is Shakespeare's longest play. The Riverside edition constitutes 4, lines totaling 29, words, typically requiring over four hours to stage.

Much of Hamlet' s language is courtly: elaborate, witty discourse, as recommended by Baldassare Castiglione 's etiquette guide, The Courtier.

This work specifically advises royal retainers to amuse their masters with inventive language. Osric and Polonius, especially, seem to respect this injunction.

Claudius's speech is rich with rhetorical figures—as is Hamlet's and, at times, Ophelia's—while the language of Horatio, the guards, and the gravediggers is simpler.

Claudius's high status is reinforced by using the royal first person plural "we" or "us" , and anaphora mixed with metaphor to resonate with Greek political speeches.

Of all the characters, Hamlet has the greatest rhetorical skill. An unusual rhetorical device, hendiadys , appears in several places in the play.

Examples are found in Ophelia's speech at the end of the nunnery scene: "Th' expectancy and rose of the fair state" [92] and "And I, of ladies most deject and wretched ".

One explanation may be that Hamlet was written later in Shakespeare's life, when he was adept at matching rhetorical devices to characters and the plot.

Linguist George T. Wright suggests that hendiadys had been used deliberately to heighten the play's sense of duality and dislocation.

She gives the example of Hamlet's advice to Ophelia, "get thee to a nunnery", which is simultaneously a reference to a place of chastity and a slang term for a brothel, reflecting Hamlet's confused feelings about female sexuality.

Hamlet's soliloquies have also captured the attention of scholars. Hamlet interrupts himself, vocalising either disgust or agreement with himself and embellishing his own words.

He has difficulty expressing himself directly and instead blunts the thrust of his thought with wordplay.

It is not until late in the play, after his experience with the pirates, that Hamlet is able to articulate his feelings freely.

Written at a time of religious upheaval and in the wake of the English Reformation , the play is alternately Catholic or piously medieval and Protestant or consciously modern.

The ghost describes himself as being in purgatory and as dying without last rites. This and Ophelia's burial ceremony, which is characteristically Catholic, make up most of the play's Catholic connections.

Some scholars have observed that revenge tragedies come from Catholic countries like Italy and Spain, where the revenge tragedies present contradictions of motives, since according to Catholic doctrine the duty to God and family precedes civil justice.

Hamlet's conundrum then is whether to avenge his father and kill Claudius or to leave the vengeance to God, as his religion requires.

Much of the play's Protestant tones derive from its setting in Denmark—both then and now a predominantly Protestant country, [l] though it is unclear whether the fictional Denmark of the play is intended to portray this implicit fact.

Dialogue refers explicitly to the German city of Wittenberg where Hamlet, Horatio, and Rosencrantz and Guildenstern attend university, implying where the Protestant reformer Martin Luther nailed the Ninety-five Theses to the church door in Hamlet is often perceived as a philosophical character, expounding ideas that are now described as relativist , existentialist , and sceptical.

For example, he expresses a subjectivistic idea when he says to Rosencrantz: "there is nothing either good or bad, but thinking makes it so".

Hamlet reflects the contemporary scepticism promoted by the French Renaissance humanist Michel de Montaigne.

Hamlet's " What a piece of work is a man " seems to echo many of Montaigne's ideas, and many scholars have discussed whether Shakespeare drew directly from Montaigne or whether both men were simply reacting similarly to the spirit of the times.

Freud does not offer over-all interpretations of the plays, but uses the two tragedies to illustrate and corroborate his psychological theories, which are based on his treatments of his patients and on his studies.

Productions of Hamlet have used Freud's ideas to support their own interpretations. He says that "in their amorous or hostile attitude toward their parents" neurotics reveal something that occurs with less intensity "in the minds of the majority of children".

Freud explores the reason " Oedipus Rex is capable of moving a modern reader or playgoer no less powerfully than it moved the contemporary Greeks".

He suggests that "It may be that we were all destined to direct our first sexual impulses toward our mothers, and our first impulses of hatred and violence toward our fathers.

These ideas, which became a cornerstone of Freud's psychological theories, he named the " Oedipus Complex ", and, at one point, he considered calling it the "Hamlet Complex".

Hamlet is able to perform any kind of action except take revenge on the man who murdered his father and has taken his father's place with his mother—Claudius has led Hamlet to realize the repressed desires of his own childhood.

The loathing which was supposed to drive him to revenge is replaced by "self-reproach, by conscientious scruples" which tell him "he himself is no better than the murderer whom he is required to punish".

Freud suggests that the character Hamlet goes through an experience that has three characteristics, which he numbered: 1 "the hero is not psychopathic, but becomes so" during the course of the play.

The audience identifies with the character of Hamlet, because "we are victims of the same conflict. Freud points out that Hamlet is an exception in that psychopathic characters are usually ineffective in stage plays; they "become as useless for the stage as they are for life itself", because they do not inspire insight or empathy, unless the audience is familiar with the character's inner conflict.

Freud says, "It is thus the task of the dramatist to transport us into the same illness. John Barrymore 's long-running performance in New York, directed by Thomas Hopkins, "broke new ground in its Freudian approach to character", in keeping with the post-World War I rebellion against everything Victorian.

Influenced by Jones's psychoanalytic approach, several productions have portrayed the "closet scene", where Hamlet confronts his mother in her private quarters, in a sexual light.

Ophelia's madness after her father's death may also be read through the Freudian lens: as a reaction to the death of her hoped-for lover, her father.

Ophelia is overwhelmed by having her unfulfilled love for him so abruptly terminated and drifts into the oblivion of insanity.

In the Bloom's Shakespeare Through the Ages volume on Hamlet, editors Bloom and Foster express a conviction that the intentions of Shakespeare in portraying the character of Hamlet in the play exceeded the capacity of the Freudian Oedipus complex to completely encompass the extent of characteristics depicted in Hamlet throughout the tragedy: "For once, Freud regressed in attempting to fasten the Oedipus Complex upon Hamlet: it will not stick, and merely showed that Freud did better than T.

Eliot, who preferred Coriolanus to Hamlet , or so he said. Who can believe Eliot, when he exposes his own Hamlet Complex by declaring the play to be an aesthetic failure?

Joshua Rothman has written in The New Yorker that "we tell the story wrong when we say that Freud used the idea of the Oedipus complex to understand Hamlet ".

Rothman suggests that "it was the other way around: Hamlet helped Freud understand, and perhaps even invent, psychoanalysis".

He concludes, "The Oedipus complex is a misnomer. It should be called the 'Hamlet complex'. In the s, the French psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan analyzed Hamlet to illustrate some of his concepts.

His structuralist theories about Hamlet were first presented in a series of seminars given in Paris and later published in "Desire and the Interpretation of Desire in Hamlet ".

Lacan postulated that the human psyche is determined by structures of language and that the linguistic structures of Hamlet shed light on human desire.

In the 20th century, feminist critics opened up new approaches to Gertrude and Ophelia. New Historicist and cultural materialist critics examined the play in its historical context, attempting to piece together its original cultural environment.

In this analysis, the essence of Hamlet is the central character's changed perception of his mother as a whore because of her failure to remain faithful to Old Hamlet.

In consequence, Hamlet loses his faith in all women, treating Ophelia as if she too were a whore and dishonest with Hamlet. Ophelia, by some critics, can be seen as honest and fair; however, it is virtually impossible to link these two traits, since 'fairness' is an outward trait, while 'honesty' is an inward trait.

This analysis has been praised by many feminist critics, combating what is, by Heilbrun's argument, centuries' worth of misinterpretation.

By this account, Gertrude's worst crime is of pragmatically marrying her brother-in-law in order to avoid a power vacuum. This is borne out by the fact that King Hamlet's ghost tells Hamlet to leave Gertrude out of Hamlet's revenge, to leave her to heaven, an arbitrary mercy to grant to a conspirator to murder.

Ophelia has also been defended by feminist critics, most notably Elaine Showalter. All three disappear: Laertes leaves, Hamlet abandons her, and Polonius dies.

Conventional theories had argued that without these three powerful men making decisions for her, Ophelia is driven into madness.

Showalter points out that Ophelia has become the symbol of the distraught and hysterical woman in modern culture. Hamlet is one of the most quoted works in the English language, and is often included on lists of the world's greatest literature.

Academic Laurie Osborne identifies the direct influence of Hamlet in numerous modern narratives, and divides them into four main categories: fictional accounts of the play's composition, simplifications of the story for young readers, stories expanding the role of one or more characters, and narratives featuring performances of the play.

English poet John Milton was an early admirer of Shakespeare and took evident inspiration from his work. As John Kerrigan discusses, Milton originally considered writing his epic poem Paradise Lost as a tragedy.

As scholar Christopher N. Warren argues, Paradise Lost ' s Satan "undergoes a transformation in the poem from a Hamlet-like avenger into a Claudius-like usurper," a plot device that supports Milton's larger Republican internationalist project.

Henry Fielding 's Tom Jones , published about , describes a visit to Hamlet by Tom Jones and Mr Partridge, with similarities to the "play within a play".

When Baum had been touring New York State in the title role, the actor playing the ghost fell through the floorboards, and the rural audience thought it was part of the show and demanded that the actor repeat the fall, because they thought it was funny.

Baum would later recount the actual story in an article, but the short story is told from the point of view of the actor playing the ghost.

In the s, James Joyce managed "a more upbeat version" of Hamlet —stripped of obsession and revenge—in Ulysses , though its main parallels are with Homer 's Odyssey.

In Angela Carter 's Wise Children , To be or not to be [] is reworked as a song and dance routine, and Iris Murdoch 's The Black Prince has Oedipal themes and murder intertwined with a love affair between a Hamlet -obsessed writer, Bradley Pearson, and the daughter of his rival.

There is the story of the woman who read Hamlet for the first time and said, "I don't see why people admire that play so.

It is nothing but a bunch of quotations strung together. Shakespeare almost certainly wrote the role of Hamlet for Richard Burbage.

He was the chief tragedian of the Lord Chamberlain's Men , with a capacious memory for lines and a wide emotional range.

Firm evidence for specific early performances of the play is scant. What is known is that the crew of the ship Red Dragon , anchored off Sierra Leone , performed Hamlet in September ; [] [] [] that the play toured in Germany within five years of Shakespeare's death; [] and that it was performed before James I in and Charles I in All theatres were closed down by the Puritan government during the Interregnum.

The play was revived early in the Restoration. When the existing stock of pre- civil war plays was divided between the two newly created patent theatre companies , Hamlet was the only Shakespearean favourite that Sir William Davenant's Duke's Company secured.

Although chided for "acknowledging acquaintances in the audience" and "inadequate memorisation of his lines", he became a national celebrity.

Of these, Booth remained to make his career in the States, fathering the nation's most notorious actor, John Wilkes Booth who later assassinated Abraham Lincoln , and its most famous Hamlet, Edwin Booth.

In the United Kingdom, the actor-managers of the Victorian era including Kean, Samuel Phelps , Macready, and Henry Irving staged Shakespeare in a grand manner, with elaborate scenery and costumes.

George Bernard Shaw 's praise for Johnston Forbes-Robertson 's performance contains a sideswipe at Irving: "The story of the play was perfectly intelligible, and quite took the attention of the audience off the principal actor at moments.

What is the Lyceum coming to? In London, Edmund Kean was the first Hamlet to abandon the regal finery usually associated with the role in favour of a plain costume, and he is said to have surprised his audience by playing Hamlet as serious and introspective.

In contrast to the "effeminate" view of the central character that usually accompanied a female casting, she described her character as "manly and resolute, but nonetheless thoughtful In France, Charles Kemble initiated an enthusiasm for Shakespeare; and leading members of the Romantic movement such as Victor Hugo and Alexandre Dumas saw his Paris performance of Hamlet , particularly admiring the madness of Harriet Smithson 's Ophelia.

Konstantin Stanislavski and Edward Gordon Craig —two of the 20th century's most influential theatre practitioners —collaborated on the Moscow Art Theatre 's seminal production of — Hamlet is often played with contemporary political overtones.

Leopold Jessner 's production at the Berlin Staatstheater portrayed Claudius's court as a parody of the corrupt and fawning court of Kaiser Wilhelm.

In this production, the actors playing Hamlet, Claudius and Polonius exchanged roles at crucial moments in the performance, including the moment of Claudius's death, at which point the actor mainly associated with Hamlet fell to the ground.

Notable stagings in London and New York include Barrymore's production at the Haymarket ; it influenced subsequent performances by John Gielgud and Laurence Olivier.

The staging, known as the "G. Olivier does not speak poetry badly. He does not speak it at all. Richard Burton received his third Tony Award nomination when he played his second Hamlet, his first under John Gielgud's direction, in in a production that holds the record for the longest run of the play in Broadway history performances.

The performance was set on a bare stage, conceived to appear like a dress rehearsal, with Burton in a black v-neck sweater, and Gielgud himself tape-recorded the voice for the ghost which appeared as a looming shadow.

It was immortalised both on record and on a film that played in US theatres for a week in as well as being the subject of books written by cast members William Redfield and Richard L.

Other New York portrayals of Hamlet of note include that of Ralph Fiennes 's in for which he won the Tony Award for Best Actor —which ran, from first preview to closing night, a total of one hundred performances.

It respects the play, but it doesn't provide any new material for arcane debates on what it all means. Instead it's an intelligent, beautifully read Stephen Lang 's Hamlet for the Roundabout Theatre Company in received mixed reviews [] [] and ran for sixty-one performances.

David Warner played the role with the Royal Shakespeare Theatre in Off-Broadway , the Riverside Shakespeare Company mounted an uncut first folio Hamlet in at Columbia University , with a playing time of under three hours.

Fellow actor and friend, Sir Ian McKellen , said that Charleson played Hamlet so well it was as if he had rehearsed the role all his life; McKellen called it "the perfect Hamlet".

The production officially opened on 3 June and ran through 22 August In October , a production starring Michael Sheen opened at the Young Vic , in which the play was set inside a psychiatric hospital.

In , American actor Paul Giamatti won mixed reviews for his performance on stage in the title role of Hamlet , performed in modern dress , at the Yale Repertory Theater , at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut [] [].

The Globe Theatre of London initiated a project in to perform Hamlet in every country in the world in the space of two years.

Titled Globe to Globe Hamlet , it began its tour on 23 April , the th anniversary of Shakespeare's birth. Benedict Cumberbatch played the role for a week run in a production at the Barbican Theatre , opening on 25 August It was called the "most in-demand theatre production of all time" and sold out in seven hours after tickets went on sale 11 August , more than a year before the play opened.

Tom Hiddleston played the role for a three-week run at Vanbrugh Theatre that opened on 1 September and was directed by Kenneth Branagh.

In , The Globe Theatre 's newly instated artistic director Michelle Terry played the role in a production notable for its gender-blind casting.

The earliest screen success for Hamlet was Sarah Bernhardt 's five-minute film of the fencing scene, [z] which was produced in The film was an early attempt at combining sound and film , music and words were recorded on phonograph records, to be played along with the film.

Laurence Olivier 's moody black-and-white Hamlet won Best Picture and Best Actor Academy Awards , and is still, as of [update] , the only Shakespeare film to have done so.

His interpretation stressed the Oedipal overtones of the play, and cast year-old Eileen Herlie as Hamlet's mother, opposite himself, at 41, as Hamlet.

In , actor Jack Manning performed the play in minute segments over two weeks in the short-lived late night DuMont series Monodrama Theater.

A live film of the production was produced using "Electronovision", a method of recording a live performance with multiple video cameras and converting the image to film.

In Franco Zeffirelli , whose Shakespeare films have been described as "sensual rather than cerebral", [] cast Mel Gibson —then famous for the Mad Max and Lethal Weapon movies—in the title role of his version ; Glenn Close —then famous as the psychotic "other woman" in Fatal Attraction —played Gertrude, [] and Paul Scofield played Hamlet's father.

Kenneth Branagh adapted, directed, and starred in a film version of Hamlet that contained material from the First Folio and the Second Quarto.

Branagh's Hamlet runs for just over four hours. The film is structured as an epic and makes frequent use of flashbacks to highlight elements not made explicit in the play: Hamlet's sexual relationship with Kate Winslet 's Ophelia, for example, or his childhood affection for Yorick played by Ken Dodd.

There have also been several films that transposed the general storyline of Hamlet or elements thereof to other settings.

For example, the Bollywood film Haider is an adaptation set in Kashmir. There have been various "derivative works" of Hamlet which recast the story from the point of view of other characters, or transpose the story into a new setting or act as sequels or prequels to Hamlet.

This section is limited to those written for the stage. The best-known is Tom Stoppard's play Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead , which retells many of the events of the story from the point of view of the characters Rosencrantz and Guildenstern and gives them a backstory of their own.

Several times since , the American Shakespeare Center has mounted repertories that included both Hamlet and Rosencrantz and Guildenstern , with the same actors performing the same roles in each; in their and seasons the two plays were "directed, designed, and rehearsed together to make the most out of the shared scenes and situations".

Gilbert wrote a short comic play titled Rosencrantz and Guildenstern , in which Hamlet's play is presented as a tragedy written by Claudius in his youth of which he is greatly embarrassed.

Through the chaos triggered by Hamlet's staging of it, Guildenstern helps Rosencrantz vie with Hamlet to make Ophelia his bride.

Lee Blessing 's Fortinbras is a comical sequel to Hamlet in which all the deceased characters come back as ghosts.

The New York Times reviewed the play, saying it is "scarcely more than an extended comedy sketch, lacking the portent and linguistic complexity of Tom Stoppard's Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead.

Fortinbras operates on a far less ambitious plane, but it is a ripping yarn and offers Keith Reddin a role in which he can commit comic mayhem".

Caridad Svich 's 12 Ophelias a play with broken songs includes elements of the story of Hamlet but focuses on Ophelia.

In Svich's play, Ophelia is resurrected and rises from a pool of water, after her death in Hamlet. The play is a series of scenes and songs, and was first staged at a public swimming pool in Brooklyn.

David Davalos ' Wittenberg is a "tragical-comical-historical" prequel to Hamlet that depicts the Danish prince as a student at Wittenberg University now known as the University of Halle-Wittenberg , where he is torn between the conflicting teachings of his mentors John Faustus and Martin Luther.

The New York Times reviewed the play, saying, "Mr. Davalos has molded a daft campus comedy out of this unlikely convergence," [] and Nytheatre.

All references to Hamlet , unless otherwise specified, are taken from the Arden Shakespeare Q2. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the play by William Shakespeare. For the type of settlement, see Hamlet place.

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Possibly written by Thomas Kyd or even William Shakespeare, the Ur-Hamlet would have existed by , and would have incorporated a ghost.

Consequently, there is no direct evidence that Kyd wrote it, nor any evidence that the play was not an early version of Hamlet by Shakespeare himself.

This latter idea—placing Hamlet far earlier than the generally accepted date, with a much longer period of development—has attracted some support.

The upshot is that scholars cannot assert with any confidence how much material Shakespeare took from the Ur-Hamlet if it even existed , how much from Belleforest or Saxo, and how much from other contemporary sources such as Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy.

No clear evidence exists that Shakespeare made any direct references to Saxo's version. However, elements of Belleforest's version which are not in Saxo's story do appear in Shakespeare's play.

Whether Shakespeare took these from Belleforest directly or from the hypothetical Ur-Hamlet remains unclear. Most scholars reject the idea that Hamlet is in any way connected with Shakespeare's only son, Hamnet Shakespeare , who died in at age eleven.

Conventional wisdom holds that Hamlet is too obviously connected to legend, and the name Hamnet was quite popular at the time. He notes that the name of Hamnet Sadler, the Stratford neighbour after whom Hamnet was named, was often written as Hamlet Sadler and that, in the loose orthography of the time, the names were virtually interchangeable.

Rowse speculated that Polonius's tedious verbosity might have resembled Burghley's. In , Francis Meres published his Palladis Tamia , a survey of English literature from Chaucer to its present day, within which twelve of Shakespeare's plays are named.

Hamlet is not among them, suggesting that it had not yet been written. As Hamlet was very popular, Bernard Lott, the series editor of New Swan , believes it "unlikely that he [Meres] would have overlooked The phrase "little eyases" [42] in the First Folio F1 may allude to the Children of the Chapel , whose popularity in London forced the Globe company into provincial touring.

A contemporary of Shakespeare's, Gabriel Harvey , wrote a marginal note in his copy of the edition of Chaucer's works, which some scholars use as dating evidence.

Harvey's note says that "the wiser sort" enjoy Hamlet , and implies that the Earl of Essex —executed in February for rebellion—was still alive.

Other scholars consider this inconclusive. Edwards, for example, concludes that the "sense of time is so confused in Harvey's note that it is really of little use in trying to date Hamlet ".

This is because the same note also refers to Spenser and Watson as if they were still alive "our flourishing metricians " , but also mentions " Owen's new epigrams", published in Three early editions of the text have survived, making attempts to establish a single "authentic" text problematic and inconclusive.

Other folios and quartos were subsequently published—including John Smethwick 's Q3, Q4, and Q5 —37 —but these are regarded as derivatives of the first three editions.

Early editors of Shakespeare's works , beginning with Nicholas Rowe and Lewis Theobald , combined material from the two earliest sources of Hamlet available at the time, Q2 and F1.

Each text contains material that the other lacks, with many minor differences in wording: scarcely lines are identical in the two. Editors have combined them in an effort to create one "inclusive" text that reflects an imagined "ideal" of Shakespeare's original.

Theobald's version became standard for a long time, [52] and his "full text" approach continues to influence editorial practice to the present day.

Some contemporary scholarship, however, discounts this approach, instead considering "an authentic Hamlet an unrealisable ideal.

Colin Burrow has argued that "most of us should read a text that is made up by conflating all three versions I suspect most people just won't want to read a three-text play Traditionally, editors of Shakespeare's plays have divided them into five acts.

None of the early texts of Hamlet , however, were arranged this way, and the play's division into acts and scenes derives from a quarto.

Modern editors generally follow this traditional division but consider it unsatisfactory; for example, after Hamlet drags Polonius's body out of Gertrude's bedchamber, there is an act-break [59] after which the action appears to continue uninterrupted.

The discovery in of Q1—whose existence had been quite unsuspected—caused considerable interest and excitement, raising many questions of editorial practice and interpretation.

Scholars immediately identified apparent deficiencies in Q1, which was instrumental in the development of the concept of a Shakespearean " bad quarto ".

The major deficiency of Q1 is in the language: particularly noticeable in the opening lines of the famous " To be, or not to be " soliloquy: "To be, or not to be, aye there's the point.

New Cambridge editor Kathleen Irace has noted that "Q1's more linear plot design is certainly easier [ Q1 is considerably shorter than Q2 or F1 and may be a memorial reconstruction of the play as Shakespeare's company performed it, by an actor who played a minor role most likely Marcellus.

It is suggested by Irace that Q1 is an abridged version intended especially for travelling productions, thus the question of length may be considered as separate from issues of poor textual quality.

Irace, in her introduction to Q1, wrote that "I have avoided as many other alterations as possible, because the differences From the early 17th century, the play was famous for its ghost and vivid dramatisation of melancholy and insanity , leading to a procession of mad courtiers and ladies in Jacobean and Caroline drama.

Before then, he was either mad, or not; either a hero, or not; with no in-betweens. Hamlet departed from contemporary dramatic convention in several ways.

For example, in Shakespeare's day, plays were usually expected to follow the advice of Aristotle in his Poetics : that a drama should focus on action, not character.

In Hamlet , Shakespeare reverses this so that it is through the soliloquies , not the action, that the audience learns Hamlet's motives and thoughts.

The play is full of seeming discontinuities and irregularities of action, except in the "bad" quarto. At one point, as in the Gravedigger scene, [a] Hamlet seems resolved to kill Claudius: in the next scene, however, when Claudius appears, he is suddenly tame.

Scholars still debate whether these twists are mistakes or intentional additions to add to the play's themes of confusion and duality.

Hamlet is Shakespeare's longest play. The Riverside edition constitutes 4, lines totaling 29, words, typically requiring over four hours to stage.

Much of Hamlet' s language is courtly: elaborate, witty discourse, as recommended by Baldassare Castiglione 's etiquette guide, The Courtier.

This work specifically advises royal retainers to amuse their masters with inventive language. Osric and Polonius, especially, seem to respect this injunction.

Claudius's speech is rich with rhetorical figures—as is Hamlet's and, at times, Ophelia's—while the language of Horatio, the guards, and the gravediggers is simpler.

Claudius's high status is reinforced by using the royal first person plural "we" or "us" , and anaphora mixed with metaphor to resonate with Greek political speeches.

Of all the characters, Hamlet has the greatest rhetorical skill. An unusual rhetorical device, hendiadys , appears in several places in the play.

Examples are found in Ophelia's speech at the end of the nunnery scene: "Th' expectancy and rose of the fair state" [92] and "And I, of ladies most deject and wretched ".

One explanation may be that Hamlet was written later in Shakespeare's life, when he was adept at matching rhetorical devices to characters and the plot.

Linguist George T. Wright suggests that hendiadys had been used deliberately to heighten the play's sense of duality and dislocation.

She gives the example of Hamlet's advice to Ophelia, "get thee to a nunnery", which is simultaneously a reference to a place of chastity and a slang term for a brothel, reflecting Hamlet's confused feelings about female sexuality.

Hamlet's soliloquies have also captured the attention of scholars. Hamlet interrupts himself, vocalising either disgust or agreement with himself and embellishing his own words.

He has difficulty expressing himself directly and instead blunts the thrust of his thought with wordplay.

It is not until late in the play, after his experience with the pirates, that Hamlet is able to articulate his feelings freely.

Written at a time of religious upheaval and in the wake of the English Reformation , the play is alternately Catholic or piously medieval and Protestant or consciously modern.

The ghost describes himself as being in purgatory and as dying without last rites. This and Ophelia's burial ceremony, which is characteristically Catholic, make up most of the play's Catholic connections.

Some scholars have observed that revenge tragedies come from Catholic countries like Italy and Spain, where the revenge tragedies present contradictions of motives, since according to Catholic doctrine the duty to God and family precedes civil justice.

Hamlet's conundrum then is whether to avenge his father and kill Claudius or to leave the vengeance to God, as his religion requires. Much of the play's Protestant tones derive from its setting in Denmark—both then and now a predominantly Protestant country, [l] though it is unclear whether the fictional Denmark of the play is intended to portray this implicit fact.

Dialogue refers explicitly to the German city of Wittenberg where Hamlet, Horatio, and Rosencrantz and Guildenstern attend university, implying where the Protestant reformer Martin Luther nailed the Ninety-five Theses to the church door in Hamlet is often perceived as a philosophical character, expounding ideas that are now described as relativist , existentialist , and sceptical.

For example, he expresses a subjectivistic idea when he says to Rosencrantz: "there is nothing either good or bad, but thinking makes it so".

Hamlet reflects the contemporary scepticism promoted by the French Renaissance humanist Michel de Montaigne. Hamlet's " What a piece of work is a man " seems to echo many of Montaigne's ideas, and many scholars have discussed whether Shakespeare drew directly from Montaigne or whether both men were simply reacting similarly to the spirit of the times.

Freud does not offer over-all interpretations of the plays, but uses the two tragedies to illustrate and corroborate his psychological theories, which are based on his treatments of his patients and on his studies.

Productions of Hamlet have used Freud's ideas to support their own interpretations. He says that "in their amorous or hostile attitude toward their parents" neurotics reveal something that occurs with less intensity "in the minds of the majority of children".

Freud explores the reason " Oedipus Rex is capable of moving a modern reader or playgoer no less powerfully than it moved the contemporary Greeks".

He suggests that "It may be that we were all destined to direct our first sexual impulses toward our mothers, and our first impulses of hatred and violence toward our fathers.

These ideas, which became a cornerstone of Freud's psychological theories, he named the " Oedipus Complex ", and, at one point, he considered calling it the "Hamlet Complex".

Hamlet is able to perform any kind of action except take revenge on the man who murdered his father and has taken his father's place with his mother—Claudius has led Hamlet to realize the repressed desires of his own childhood.

The loathing which was supposed to drive him to revenge is replaced by "self-reproach, by conscientious scruples" which tell him "he himself is no better than the murderer whom he is required to punish".

Freud suggests that the character Hamlet goes through an experience that has three characteristics, which he numbered: 1 "the hero is not psychopathic, but becomes so" during the course of the play.

The audience identifies with the character of Hamlet, because "we are victims of the same conflict. Freud points out that Hamlet is an exception in that psychopathic characters are usually ineffective in stage plays; they "become as useless for the stage as they are for life itself", because they do not inspire insight or empathy, unless the audience is familiar with the character's inner conflict.

Freud says, "It is thus the task of the dramatist to transport us into the same illness. John Barrymore 's long-running performance in New York, directed by Thomas Hopkins, "broke new ground in its Freudian approach to character", in keeping with the post-World War I rebellion against everything Victorian.

Influenced by Jones's psychoanalytic approach, several productions have portrayed the "closet scene", where Hamlet confronts his mother in her private quarters, in a sexual light.

Ophelia's madness after her father's death may also be read through the Freudian lens: as a reaction to the death of her hoped-for lover, her father.

Ophelia is overwhelmed by having her unfulfilled love for him so abruptly terminated and drifts into the oblivion of insanity.

In the Bloom's Shakespeare Through the Ages volume on Hamlet, editors Bloom and Foster express a conviction that the intentions of Shakespeare in portraying the character of Hamlet in the play exceeded the capacity of the Freudian Oedipus complex to completely encompass the extent of characteristics depicted in Hamlet throughout the tragedy: "For once, Freud regressed in attempting to fasten the Oedipus Complex upon Hamlet: it will not stick, and merely showed that Freud did better than T.

Eliot, who preferred Coriolanus to Hamlet , or so he said. Who can believe Eliot, when he exposes his own Hamlet Complex by declaring the play to be an aesthetic failure?

Joshua Rothman has written in The New Yorker that "we tell the story wrong when we say that Freud used the idea of the Oedipus complex to understand Hamlet ".

Rothman suggests that "it was the other way around: Hamlet helped Freud understand, and perhaps even invent, psychoanalysis".

He concludes, "The Oedipus complex is a misnomer. It should be called the 'Hamlet complex'. In the s, the French psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan analyzed Hamlet to illustrate some of his concepts.

His structuralist theories about Hamlet were first presented in a series of seminars given in Paris and later published in "Desire and the Interpretation of Desire in Hamlet ".

Lacan postulated that the human psyche is determined by structures of language and that the linguistic structures of Hamlet shed light on human desire.

In the 20th century, feminist critics opened up new approaches to Gertrude and Ophelia. New Historicist and cultural materialist critics examined the play in its historical context, attempting to piece together its original cultural environment.

In this analysis, the essence of Hamlet is the central character's changed perception of his mother as a whore because of her failure to remain faithful to Old Hamlet.

In consequence, Hamlet loses his faith in all women, treating Ophelia as if she too were a whore and dishonest with Hamlet.

Ophelia, by some critics, can be seen as honest and fair; however, it is virtually impossible to link these two traits, since 'fairness' is an outward trait, while 'honesty' is an inward trait.

This analysis has been praised by many feminist critics, combating what is, by Heilbrun's argument, centuries' worth of misinterpretation.

By this account, Gertrude's worst crime is of pragmatically marrying her brother-in-law in order to avoid a power vacuum.

This is borne out by the fact that King Hamlet's ghost tells Hamlet to leave Gertrude out of Hamlet's revenge, to leave her to heaven, an arbitrary mercy to grant to a conspirator to murder.

Ophelia has also been defended by feminist critics, most notably Elaine Showalter. All three disappear: Laertes leaves, Hamlet abandons her, and Polonius dies.

Conventional theories had argued that without these three powerful men making decisions for her, Ophelia is driven into madness.

Showalter points out that Ophelia has become the symbol of the distraught and hysterical woman in modern culture. Hamlet is one of the most quoted works in the English language, and is often included on lists of the world's greatest literature.

Academic Laurie Osborne identifies the direct influence of Hamlet in numerous modern narratives, and divides them into four main categories: fictional accounts of the play's composition, simplifications of the story for young readers, stories expanding the role of one or more characters, and narratives featuring performances of the play.

English poet John Milton was an early admirer of Shakespeare and took evident inspiration from his work. As John Kerrigan discusses, Milton originally considered writing his epic poem Paradise Lost as a tragedy.

As scholar Christopher N. Warren argues, Paradise Lost ' s Satan "undergoes a transformation in the poem from a Hamlet-like avenger into a Claudius-like usurper," a plot device that supports Milton's larger Republican internationalist project.

Henry Fielding 's Tom Jones , published about , describes a visit to Hamlet by Tom Jones and Mr Partridge, with similarities to the "play within a play".

When Baum had been touring New York State in the title role, the actor playing the ghost fell through the floorboards, and the rural audience thought it was part of the show and demanded that the actor repeat the fall, because they thought it was funny.

Baum would later recount the actual story in an article, but the short story is told from the point of view of the actor playing the ghost.

In the s, James Joyce managed "a more upbeat version" of Hamlet —stripped of obsession and revenge—in Ulysses , though its main parallels are with Homer 's Odyssey.

In Angela Carter 's Wise Children , To be or not to be [] is reworked as a song and dance routine, and Iris Murdoch 's The Black Prince has Oedipal themes and murder intertwined with a love affair between a Hamlet -obsessed writer, Bradley Pearson, and the daughter of his rival.

There is the story of the woman who read Hamlet for the first time and said, "I don't see why people admire that play so.

It is nothing but a bunch of quotations strung together. Shakespeare almost certainly wrote the role of Hamlet for Richard Burbage. He was the chief tragedian of the Lord Chamberlain's Men , with a capacious memory for lines and a wide emotional range.

Firm evidence for specific early performances of the play is scant. What is known is that the crew of the ship Red Dragon , anchored off Sierra Leone , performed Hamlet in September ; [] [] [] that the play toured in Germany within five years of Shakespeare's death; [] and that it was performed before James I in and Charles I in All theatres were closed down by the Puritan government during the Interregnum.

The play was revived early in the Restoration. When the existing stock of pre- civil war plays was divided between the two newly created patent theatre companies , Hamlet was the only Shakespearean favourite that Sir William Davenant's Duke's Company secured.

Although chided for "acknowledging acquaintances in the audience" and "inadequate memorisation of his lines", he became a national celebrity.

Of these, Booth remained to make his career in the States, fathering the nation's most notorious actor, John Wilkes Booth who later assassinated Abraham Lincoln , and its most famous Hamlet, Edwin Booth.

In the United Kingdom, the actor-managers of the Victorian era including Kean, Samuel Phelps , Macready, and Henry Irving staged Shakespeare in a grand manner, with elaborate scenery and costumes.

George Bernard Shaw 's praise for Johnston Forbes-Robertson 's performance contains a sideswipe at Irving: "The story of the play was perfectly intelligible, and quite took the attention of the audience off the principal actor at moments.

What is the Lyceum coming to? In London, Edmund Kean was the first Hamlet to abandon the regal finery usually associated with the role in favour of a plain costume, and he is said to have surprised his audience by playing Hamlet as serious and introspective.

In contrast to the "effeminate" view of the central character that usually accompanied a female casting, she described her character as "manly and resolute, but nonetheless thoughtful In France, Charles Kemble initiated an enthusiasm for Shakespeare; and leading members of the Romantic movement such as Victor Hugo and Alexandre Dumas saw his Paris performance of Hamlet , particularly admiring the madness of Harriet Smithson 's Ophelia.

Konstantin Stanislavski and Edward Gordon Craig —two of the 20th century's most influential theatre practitioners —collaborated on the Moscow Art Theatre 's seminal production of — Hamlet is often played with contemporary political overtones.

Leopold Jessner 's production at the Berlin Staatstheater portrayed Claudius's court as a parody of the corrupt and fawning court of Kaiser Wilhelm.

In this production, the actors playing Hamlet, Claudius and Polonius exchanged roles at crucial moments in the performance, including the moment of Claudius's death, at which point the actor mainly associated with Hamlet fell to the ground.

Notable stagings in London and New York include Barrymore's production at the Haymarket ; it influenced subsequent performances by John Gielgud and Laurence Olivier.

The staging, known as the "G. Olivier does not speak poetry badly. He does not speak it at all. Richard Burton received his third Tony Award nomination when he played his second Hamlet, his first under John Gielgud's direction, in in a production that holds the record for the longest run of the play in Broadway history performances.

The performance was set on a bare stage, conceived to appear like a dress rehearsal, with Burton in a black v-neck sweater, and Gielgud himself tape-recorded the voice for the ghost which appeared as a looming shadow.

It was immortalised both on record and on a film that played in US theatres for a week in as well as being the subject of books written by cast members William Redfield and Richard L.

Other New York portrayals of Hamlet of note include that of Ralph Fiennes 's in for which he won the Tony Award for Best Actor —which ran, from first preview to closing night, a total of one hundred performances.

It respects the play, but it doesn't provide any new material for arcane debates on what it all means. Instead it's an intelligent, beautifully read Stephen Lang 's Hamlet for the Roundabout Theatre Company in received mixed reviews [] [] and ran for sixty-one performances.

David Warner played the role with the Royal Shakespeare Theatre in Off-Broadway , the Riverside Shakespeare Company mounted an uncut first folio Hamlet in at Columbia University , with a playing time of under three hours.

Fellow actor and friend, Sir Ian McKellen , said that Charleson played Hamlet so well it was as if he had rehearsed the role all his life; McKellen called it "the perfect Hamlet".

The production officially opened on 3 June and ran through 22 August In October , a production starring Michael Sheen opened at the Young Vic , in which the play was set inside a psychiatric hospital.

In , American actor Paul Giamatti won mixed reviews for his performance on stage in the title role of Hamlet , performed in modern dress , at the Yale Repertory Theater , at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut [] [].

The Globe Theatre of London initiated a project in to perform Hamlet in every country in the world in the space of two years. Titled Globe to Globe Hamlet , it began its tour on 23 April , the th anniversary of Shakespeare's birth.

Benedict Cumberbatch played the role for a week run in a production at the Barbican Theatre , opening on 25 August It was called the "most in-demand theatre production of all time" and sold out in seven hours after tickets went on sale 11 August , more than a year before the play opened.

Tom Hiddleston played the role for a three-week run at Vanbrugh Theatre that opened on 1 September and was directed by Kenneth Branagh.

In , The Globe Theatre 's newly instated artistic director Michelle Terry played the role in a production notable for its gender-blind casting.

The earliest screen success for Hamlet was Sarah Bernhardt 's five-minute film of the fencing scene, [z] which was produced in The film was an early attempt at combining sound and film , music and words were recorded on phonograph records, to be played along with the film.

Laurence Olivier 's moody black-and-white Hamlet won Best Picture and Best Actor Academy Awards , and is still, as of [update] , the only Shakespeare film to have done so.

His interpretation stressed the Oedipal overtones of the play, and cast year-old Eileen Herlie as Hamlet's mother, opposite himself, at 41, as Hamlet.

In , actor Jack Manning performed the play in minute segments over two weeks in the short-lived late night DuMont series Monodrama Theater.

A live film of the production was produced using "Electronovision", a method of recording a live performance with multiple video cameras and converting the image to film.

In Franco Zeffirelli , whose Shakespeare films have been described as "sensual rather than cerebral", [] cast Mel Gibson —then famous for the Mad Max and Lethal Weapon movies—in the title role of his version ; Glenn Close —then famous as the psychotic "other woman" in Fatal Attraction —played Gertrude, [] and Paul Scofield played Hamlet's father.

Kenneth Branagh adapted, directed, and starred in a film version of Hamlet that contained material from the First Folio and the Second Quarto.

Branagh's Hamlet runs for just over four hours. The film is structured as an epic and makes frequent use of flashbacks to highlight elements not made explicit in the play: Hamlet's sexual relationship with Kate Winslet 's Ophelia, for example, or his childhood affection for Yorick played by Ken Dodd.

There have also been several films that transposed the general storyline of Hamlet or elements thereof to other settings. For example, the Bollywood film Haider is an adaptation set in Kashmir.

There have been various "derivative works" of Hamlet which recast the story from the point of view of other characters, or transpose the story into a new setting or act as sequels or prequels to Hamlet.

This section is limited to those written for the stage. The best-known is Tom Stoppard's play Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead , which retells many of the events of the story from the point of view of the characters Rosencrantz and Guildenstern and gives them a backstory of their own.

Several times since , the American Shakespeare Center has mounted repertories that included both Hamlet and Rosencrantz and Guildenstern , with the same actors performing the same roles in each; in their and seasons the two plays were "directed, designed, and rehearsed together to make the most out of the shared scenes and situations".

Gilbert wrote a short comic play titled Rosencrantz and Guildenstern , in which Hamlet's play is presented as a tragedy written by Claudius in his youth of which he is greatly embarrassed.

Through the chaos triggered by Hamlet's staging of it, Guildenstern helps Rosencrantz vie with Hamlet to make Ophelia his bride.

Lee Blessing 's Fortinbras is a comical sequel to Hamlet in which all the deceased characters come back as ghosts.

The New York Times reviewed the play, saying it is "scarcely more than an extended comedy sketch, lacking the portent and linguistic complexity of Tom Stoppard's Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead.

Fortinbras operates on a far less ambitious plane, but it is a ripping yarn and offers Keith Reddin a role in which he can commit comic mayhem".

Caridad Svich 's 12 Ophelias a play with broken songs includes elements of the story of Hamlet but focuses on Ophelia. In Svich's play, Ophelia is resurrected and rises from a pool of water, after her death in Hamlet.

The play is a series of scenes and songs, and was first staged at a public swimming pool in Brooklyn.

David Davalos ' Wittenberg is a "tragical-comical-historical" prequel to Hamlet that depicts the Danish prince as a student at Wittenberg University now known as the University of Halle-Wittenberg , where he is torn between the conflicting teachings of his mentors John Faustus and Martin Luther.

The New York Times reviewed the play, saying, "Mr. Davalos has molded a daft campus comedy out of this unlikely convergence," [] and Nytheatre.

All references to Hamlet , unless otherwise specified, are taken from the Arden Shakespeare Q2. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the play by William Shakespeare.

For the type of settlement, see Hamlet place. For other uses, see Hamlet disambiguation. Hamlet portrayed by the actor Edwin Booth , c.

Hamlet Claudius Gertrude Polonius. Main article: Characters in Hamlet. Main article: Sources of Hamlet. Main article: Critical approaches to Hamlet.

See also: Literary influence of Hamlet. Main articles: Hamlet in performance and Shakespeare in performance.

The day we see Hamlet die in the theatre, something of him dies for us. He is dethroned by the spectre of an actor, and we shall never be able to keep the usurper out of our dreams.

Main article: Hamlet on screen. See also: Cultural references to Hamlet. However Harold Jenkins, the editor of the second series Arden edition of the play, considers that there are not grounds for thinking that the Ur-Hamlet is an early work by Shakespeare, which he then rewrote.

Craig and Stanislavski began planning the production in but, due to a serious illness of Stanislavski's, it was delayed until December In the dark, shadowy foreground, separated by a gauze , Hamlet lay, as if dreaming.

On Claudius's exit-line the figures remained but the gauze was loosened, so that they appeared to melt away as if Hamlet's thoughts had turned elsewhere.

For this effect, the scene received an ovation , which was unheard of at the MAT. Daily Telegraph.

Retrieved 18 March Bate, Jonathan ; Rasmussen, Eric, eds. Complete Works. The RSC Shakespeare.

New York: Royal Shakespeare Company. The Royal Shakespeare Company. Edwards, Phillip, ed. Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. New Cambridge Shakespeare.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Evans, G. Blakemore , ed. The Riverside Shakespeare. Houghton Mifflin for Riverside Shakespeare Company.

Hibbard, G. Oxford World's Classics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Irace, Kathleen O. The First Quarto of Hamlet. Jenkins, Harold, ed.

The Arden Shakespeare , second series. London: Methuen. Lott, Bernard, ed. New Swan Shakespeare , Advanced series New ed.

London: Longman. Thompson, Ann; Taylor, Neil, eds. The Arden Shakespeare , third series. London: Cengage Learning.

Hamlet: The Texts of and Wells, Stanley; Taylor, Gary, eds. The Complete Works. The Oxford Shakespeare Compact ed.

Oxford: Clarendon Press. Alexander, Peter Alexander's Introductions to Shakespeare. London: Collins. The Cambridge Guide to Theatre.

Cambridge Guides. Ian Mckellen: An Unofficial Biography. Virgin Books. Stanislavski: His Life and Art Revised ed. The Guardian. Harlow, Essex: Longman.

The Western Canon. New York: Harcourt Brace. Hamlet: Poem Unlimited. Edinburgh: Canongate. Bloom's Shakespeare through the ages.

Bloom's Literary Criticism. A Pictorial History of the American Theatre, — 5th ed. Crown Publishers. Los Angeles Times.

Retrieved 20 December The New York Times. Archived from the original on 18 February Retrieved 29 May In Seldon, Raman ed.

From Formalism to Poststructuralism. Cambridge History of Literary Criticism. New York: Berkley Boulevard Books.

Retrieved 18 February Brown, Mark 1 April Retrieved 22 July Rusbridger, Richard ed. Introducing Psychoanalysis: Essential Themes and Topics.

In Kennedy, Dennis ed. Black sheep and white lies Colour idioms, part 2. Definitions Clear explanations of natural written and spoken English.

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Jahrhundert v. Hamlet und Horatio sind nun von dessen Schuld überzeugt. Es ist bemerkenswert, dass die Darstellung Gertrudes unabhängig von Hamlets Urteil durchweg frei von negativen Zügen ist. hamlet deutsch

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