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1643

1643 Herzlich Willkommen!

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1643

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Chinese jaartelling :. Christelijke jaartelling :. At about the same time, Hull itself narrowly escaped capture by the Queen's forces through the treachery of Sir John Hotham , the governor, and his son, the commander of the Lincolnshire Parliamentarians.

The latter had been placed under arrest at the instance of Cromwell and of Colonel John Hutchinson , the governor of Nottingham Castle ; he escaped to Hull, but both father and son were seized by the citizens and afterwards executed.

More serious than an isolated act of treachery was the far-reaching Royalist plot, that had been detected in Parliament itself for complicity, in which Lord Conway , Edmund Waller the poet, and several members of both Houses were arrested.

After this, by way of Lincolnshire, they escaped to Hull and reorganised the defence of that place. The West Riding perforce submitted.

The Queen herself, with a second convoy and a small army under Lord Henry Jermyn , soon moved via Newark, Ashby-de-la-Zouch, Lichfield and other Royalist garrisons to Oxford, where she joined her husband on 14 July.

But Newcastle now the Marquess of Newcastle was not yet ready for his part in the programme. The Yorkshire troops would not march on London while the enemy was master of Hull.

By this time, there was a solid barrier between the royal army of the north and the capital. Roundway Down and Adwalton Moor were not, after all, destined to be fatal, though peace riots in London, dissensions in the Houses, and quarrels amongst the generals were their immediate consequences.

A new factor had arisen in the war — the Eastern Association. The Eastern Association had already intervened to help in the siege of Reading and had sent troops to the abortive gathering at Nottingham, besides clearing its own ground of "malignants.

Fresh from Edgehill, he had told Hampden: "You must get men of a spirit that is likely to go as far as gentlemen will go", not "old decayed serving-men, tapsters and such kind of fellows to encounter gentlemen that have honour and courage and resolution in them".

In January , he had gone to his own county to "raise such men as had the fear of God before them, and made some conscience of what they did".

These men, once found, were willing, for the cause, to submit to a rigorous training and an iron discipline such as other troops, fighting for honour only or for profit only, could not be brought to endure.

The result was soon apparent. As early as 13 May, Cromwell's regiment of horse, recruited from the horse-loving yeomen of the eastern counties, demonstrated its superiority in the field, in a skirmish near Grantham.

In the irregular fighting in Lincolnshire, during June and July which was on the whole unfavourable to the Parliament , as previously in pacifying the Eastern Association itself, these Puritan troopers distinguished themselves by long and rapid marches that may bear comparison with almost any in the history of the mounted arm.

When Cromwell's second opportunity came at Gainsborough on 28 July, the "Lincolneer" horse who were under his orders were fired by the example of Cromwell's own regiment.

Cromwell, directing the whole with skill, and above all with energy, utterly routed the Royalist horse and killed their general, Charles Cavendish.

In the meantime the army of Essex had been inactive. After the fall of Reading, a serious epidemic of sickness had reduced it to impotence.

When at last Essex, having obtained the desired reinforcements, moved against Oxford from the Aylesbury side, he found his men demoralised by inaction.

Before the menace of Rupert's cavalry, to which he had nothing to oppose, Essex withdrew to Bedfordshire in July. He made no attempt to intercept the march of the Queen's convoys, permitting the Oxford army, which he should have held fast, to intervene effectually in the Midlands, the west, and the south-west.

Waller might well complain that Essex, who still held Reading and the Chilterns , had given him neither active nor passive support in the critical days, preceding Roundway Down.

Still, only a few voices were raised to demand his removal, and he was shortly to have an opportunity of proving his skill and devotion in a great campaign and a great battle.

The centre and the right of the three Royalist armies had for a moment Roundway to Bristol united to crush Waller, but their concentration was short-lived.

Plymouth was to Hopton's men, what Hull was to Newcastle's. They would not march on London until the menace to their homes was removed.

Further, there were dissensions among the generals, which Charles was too weak to crush. Consequently, the original plan reappeared: The main Royalist army was to operate in the centre, Hopton's now Maurice's on the right, Newcastle on the left towards London.

While waiting for the fall of Hull and Plymouth, Charles naturally decided to make the best use of his time by reducing Gloucester, the one great fortress of Parliament in the west.

This decision quickly brought on a crisis. While the Earl of Manchester with Cromwell as his lieutenant-general was appointed to head the forces of the Eastern Association against Newcastle, and Waller was given a new army wherewith again to engage Hopton and Maurice, the task of saving Gloucester from the King's army fell to Essex.

Essex was heavily reinforced and drew his army together for action in the last days of August. Resort was had to the press-gang to fill the ranks, and recruiting for Waller's new army was stopped.

London sent six regiments of trained bands to the front, closing the shops so that every man should be free to take his part in what was thought to be the supreme trial of strength.

On the 26 August , all being ready, Essex started. Through Aylesbury and round the north side of Oxford to Stow-on-the-Wold , the army moved resolutely, not deterred by want of food and rest, or by the attacks of Rupert's and Wilmot's horse on its flank.

On 5 September, just as Gloucester was at the end of its resources, the siege of Gloucester was suddenly raised.

The Royalists drew off to Painswick , for Essex had reached Cheltenham and the danger was over; the field armies, being again face to face, and free to move.

There followed a series of skilful manoeuvres in the Severn and Avon valleys. At the end, the Parliamentary army gained a long start on its homeward road via Cricklade , Hungerford and Reading.

But the Royalist cavalry under Rupert, followed rapidly by Charles and the main body from Evesham , strained every nerve to head off Essex at Newbury.

After a sharp skirmish on Aldbourne Chase on 18 September, they succeeded. On the 19th, the whole Royal army was drawn up, facing west, with its right on Newbury, and its left on Enborne Heath.

Essex's men knew that evening that they would have to break through by force, there being no suggestion of surrender. The ground was densely intersected by hedges, except in front of the Royalists' left centre Newbury Wash and left Enborne Heath.

Practically, Essex's army was never formed in line of battle, for each unit was thrown into the fight as it came up its own road or lane.

On the left wing, in spite of the Royalist counter-strokes, the attack had the best of it, capturing field after field, and thus gradually gaining ground to the front.

Here, Viscount Falkland was killed. On the Reading road itself Essex did not succeed in deploying on to the open ground on Newbury Wash, but victoriously repelled the royal horse when it charged up to the lanes and hedges held by his foot.

On the extreme right of the Parliamentary army, which stood in the open ground of Enborne Heath, took place a famous incident.

Here, two of the London regiments, fresh to war as they were, were exposed to a trial as severe as that which broke down the veteran Spanish infantry at Rocroi in this same year.

Rupert and the Royalist horse, again and again, charged up to the squares of pikes. Between each charge, his guns tried to disorder the Londoners, but it was not until the advance of the royal infantry that the trained bands retired, slowly and in magnificent order, to the edge of the heath.

The result was that Essex's army had fought its hardest, and failed to break the opposing line. But the Royalists had suffered so heavily, and above all, the valour displayed by the Parliamentarians had so profoundly impressed them, that they were glad to give up the disputed road, and withdraw into Newbury.

Essex thereupon pursued his march. Reading was reached on 22 September after a small rearguard skirmish at Aldermaston , and so ended the First Battle of Newbury , one of the most dramatic episodes of English history.

Meanwhile, the siege of Hull had commenced. The Eastern Association forces under Manchester promptly moved up into Lincolnshire, the foot besieging Lynn which surrendered on 16 September while the horse rode into the northern part of the county to give a hand to the Fairfaxes.

Fortunately the sea communications of Hull were open. On 18 September, part of the cavalry in Hull was ferried over to Barton , and the rest under Sir Thomas Fairfax went by sea to Saltfleet a few days later, the whole joining Cromwell near Spilsby.

In return, the old Lord Fairfax, who remained in Hull, received infantry reinforcements and a quantity of ammunition and stores from the Eastern Association.

On 11 October, Cromwell and Fairfax together won a brilliant cavalry action at the Battle of Winceby , driving the Royalist horse in confusion before them to Newark.

On the same day, Newcastle's army around Hull, which had suffered terribly from the hardships of continuous siege work, was attacked by the garrison.

They were so severely handled that the siege was given up the next day. Later, Manchester retook Lincoln and Gainsborough. Thus Lincolnshire, which had been almost entirely in Newcastle's hands before he was compelled to undertake the siege of Hull, was added, in fact as well as in name, to the Eastern Association.

Elsewhere, in the reaction after the crisis of Newbury, the war languished. The city regiments went home, leaving Essex too weak to hold Reading.

The Royalists reoccupied it on 3 October. At this, the Londoners offered to serve again. They actually took part in a minor campaign around Newport Pagnell , where Rupert was attempting to fortify, as a menace to the Eastern Association and its communications with London.

Essex was successful in preventing this, but his London regiments again went home. Sir William Waller's new army in Hampshire failed lamentably in an attempt on Basing House on 7 November, the London-trained bands, deserting en bloc.

Politically, these months were the turning-point of the war. In Ireland, the King's lieutenant, by order of his master, made a truce with the Irish rebels on 15 September Charles's chief object was to set free his army to fight in England, but it was universally believed that Irish regiments in plain words, papists in arms, would shortly follow.

Under these circumstances, his act united against him nearly every class in Protestant England, and brought into the English quarrel the armed strength of Presbyterian Scotland.

Yet Charles, still trusting to intrigue and diplomacy to keep Scotland in check, deliberately rejected the advice of Montrose, his greatest and most faithful lieutenant, who wished to give the Scots employment for their army at home.

It is true that even a semblance of Presbyterian theocracy put the "Independents" on their guard, and definitely raised the question of freedom of conscience.

Secret negotiations were opened between the Independents and Charles on that basis. However, they soon discovered that the King was merely using them as instruments to bring about the betrayal of Aylesbury and other small rebel posts.

All parties found it convenient to interpret the Covenant liberally for the present. At the beginning of , the Parliamentary party showed so united a front that even Pym's death, on 8 December , hardly affected its resolution to continue the struggle.

The troops from Ireland, thus obtained at the cost of an enormous political blunder, proved to be untrustworthy after all.

Those serving in Hopton's army were "mutinous and shrewdly infected with the rebellious humour of England".

When Waller's Londoners surprised and routed a Royalist detachment at Alton on 13 December , half the prisoners took the Covenant.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. First English Civil War. Main article: First Battle of Newbury.

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